White-water rapids metaphor takes into consideration the fact that environments are both uncertain and dynamic. The stability and predictability of the calm waters do not exist. Many of today’s managers never get out of the rapids. They are facing constant change, bordering on chaos. Many of today’s managers are being forced to play a game that they have never played before that is governed by rules created as the game progresses.
White-water rapids metaphor is not merely an overstatement because many of today’s managers are facing it. Managers who are working for companies in industries like computer software and women’s fashion have long confronted with a world of white-water rapids.